Enda à RIO+20
Enda milite à RIO+20 pour la reconnaissance de nouveaux modèles de développement durable dont l’objectif premier doit être l’éradication définitive de la pauvreté.
Quelques vidéos d'enda sur le sommet de Rio+20 ICI
|Gender and empowerment|
Enda developed initiatives integrating women as actors from the 80s and integrated the perspective of gender in its mission since early 2000. Women play a crucial role in the agricultural production of African countries where 70% of the poor live in rural areas. The majority of the agricultural population, especially for subsistence is actually composed of women thus, making them the principal agent for food security and the welfare of households in rural areas. These women are overworked yet only control a minimum amount of the resources (land, benefits, etc.). Unfortunately, questions regarding gender are taken into account in less than 10% of public help for development directed to agriculture, while the agricultural programs themselves only absorb 4% of the APD (Manual on gender in agriculture, 2008, World Bank, FAO, FIDA).
In Senegal, ENDA PRONAT capitalized 20 years of experience which led to the creation of the National network for rural women engaged in agro-ecology. They are members of the mixed peasant federation and progress in the hierarchy of the decision making authority. Women from communal process have been elected as rural consultant in the Niaye region and lead actions to obtain infrastructure as well as the land ownership from which women are systematically excluded despite the laws which have been passed. The fight against excision developed, with the use of modern means including advocacy on the subject which allowed young girls to freely discuss among themselves and with associations on subject which are still taboo.
In the urban peripheries of the big southern cities, local authorities equipped with new competencies thanks to the process of decentralization must face demands regarding services and infrastructures from the migration accelerated by alimentary and economic crisis, wars and so on. 70% of poor households of Dakar in Senegal are directed by single women, 50% in Colombia. The feminization of poverty is due to two cumulated causes: the drags to women’s autonomy (including violence) and the impact of the crisis on men’s revenues and roles. Facing these difficulties, the women are not staying passive. Their participation is growing but not always recognized and supported. No matter where she is, she constitutes a visible vector sensible to produce social and political change.
Women in the popular quarter of Bogota, Colombia created multiple urban services, kindergartens allowing women to work, programs of alimentary distribution, purchasing cooperatives, recycling program. Thanks to these movements, the municipality created a program of house of equality and a program fighting against women abuse in public spaces with the support of the UN and the Latin-American network for women and habitat of the international coalition for Habitat which has been cofounded by Enda Colombia. In Bolivia, the level of illiteracy and child abandon are really high and girl’s situation stayed for too long setback in the preoccupation of the institutions because less visible in the prevention programs for drugs, children on the streets, the fight against poverty and intrafamilial violence. More in depth diagnostics from early 2000 led to the refocusing of action on that population.
In Santo Dominica, the insalubrious conditions in the urban quarter peripheral or central to the capital have mobilized women on matters of health, nutrition and education. In rural zones also, jobs opportunities were created around the wood transformation equally among young girls and boys as well as around the management of natural resources in agroforestry projects. Intrafamilial violence has also been identified as a drag to development and florescence.
In Madagascar, the prevalence of domestic violence was estimated to 65% of women living in the capital. The questions of violence in private and public spaces start to emerge as a drag to development. Indeed, these women are not only mistreated, beaten and killed, but they are also forbidden to go out, develop economic activities, create projects, participate in a civic life et often even to freely realize housework and accompany the education of their children.
In Ethiopia, Enda developed an approach on the binomial women and environment for several years. The observation at the national level revealed that local officials of cells responsible to follow questions related to gender in the midst of ministries and administration (women affairs) have a poor training on gender and environment; furthermore, the mechanisms and public budgets are insufficient. However, women are overworked due to desertification, deforestation, soil erosion; the lack of domestic energy and water, alimentary crisis, problems related to trash management. Women and environmental popular organizations are small and insufficiently listened to. In the countryside, the ameliorated fireplaces used and diffused by women proved to be successful in decreasing the use of fossil energy; however, the diffusion programs and revenue generation around the massive construction of such solution are still insufficient. AIDS progresses relatively more in the female than male population, because the lack of information and decision making power of women in intimate relations are important vulnerability factors. However, they respond in a positive manner to the initiative designated to generate revenues and ameliorate their health thanks to innovative urban agriculture projects.
The networks of Enda and its partners have a long experience of reinforcing the civil society’s actors and the local authorities in the six countries (Senegal, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Dominican Republic, Bolivia and Colombia), and have done research on gender and women participation in numerous projects. However, the projects mixing gender and environment, sustainable development and which are perennial are rare. The examples of creation of local institutions for the promotion of gender or the mainstreaming of the environmental and civic questions are insufficiently supported, despite the fact that all of the big UN organization advice to integrate the question of gender in all projects dealing with development.
The crossing of “gender/environment and fight against violence toward women” allows approaching economic and environmental questions in an optic of social change, participative democracy and consolidation of peace. Better structured and regular training would enable to show the contribution of women to development, take into account the context of migration, violence and climate change, alert on the feminization of poverty, prevent alimentary crisis by putting the emphasis on people.